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biological learning definition

January 5th, 2021 by

Constructivist learning is a dynamic interaction between the environment and the individual brain. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! There are many different forms of aggression which include verbal, physical and emotional behaviours that are apparent in some children. Video games have also been identified as a contributing cause of aggression in children. Biological environment definition is - the natural biological factors (such as wild animals and plants or bacteria) that affect human life (as in a particular place or period). During habituation, fewer neurotransmitters are released at the synapse. This examination investigates the origins of childhood aggression and evaluates two differing perspectives, these being the biological and learning perspective, and collectively concludes that there are various factors which contribute to a child acting aggressively. Yet, this can be a starting point to understanding the basis of aggressive behaviour. *You can also browse our support articles here >. One of the major debates in psychology has long centered over the relative contributions of nature versus nurture. One way that the nervous system changes is through potentiation, or the strengthening of the nerve synapses (the gaps between neurons). Violent video games can impact on children’s aggression levels, as children begin to believe that the world is a hostile place, and aggressive acts are an acceptable part of normal daily life. However, using animals to demonstrate the link between childhood aggression and biological factors is also beneficial. Biologicals, medicines made from living organisms and their products, must be pure and effective. As defined by the Psychology Dictionary, a biological factor is that which affects the behavior and function of an organism and includes any condition that has a psychological effect on a living being. ‘Serotonin and aggression in children’. On the other hand, the children who were allowed to play immediately with the toys handled them carefully and played happily. This twin study is clearly indicative of the inheritance of aggressive behaviour, yet it cannot be claimed that inheritance is the only key factor which causes aggressive behaviour or the tendency to be aggressive in children. Both structures communicate with each other via electric signals. Berkowitz identified that those who had their hands placed in the cold water caused greater harm to their partner than those who had their hands immersed in warm water. Children at different ages may respond to laboratory experiments in different ways. October 26, 2013. Caspi, A. Plomin, R., Corley, A, Fulker, D.W, & DeFries, J.C. (1998). Mice that were not bred with aggressive mice did not act aggressively; when other mice attacked them, they did not illustrate the tendency to retaliate. However, this experiment raises the possibility that children may have thought that this experiment was a game as a consequence of the Bobo doll having a spring which causes it to spring back immediately after being knocked down. Reference this. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. L. (2005). ‘Evidence for the involvement of central serotonin in mechanism of domestication of silver foxes’. Evaluation of the biological perspective ix, Evaluation of the learning perspective xv. Upon this, the e-learning could be classified by this thesis to blended and online learning. We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website, including to provide targeted advertising and track usage. These mice had a practical advantage over humans because these species have a short gestation period, which is essential as aggressive behaviour can be monitored over successive generations in a short period of time. Bard found that when parts of the cortex were removed from the cats, they displayed ‘sham rage’ where the cats acted aggressively. The children were kept away from the toys for a while before they were allowed to play with them. This may have affected the way they acted in the laboratory and the ultimate results of the experiment. The learning perspective’s social learning theory is a useful explanation for the aggressive behaviour of children. However, the learning perspective views aggression in children as having some sort of biological basis, yet through experience and reinforcement aggression becomes learned and evident amongst children. Psychological Review 41:309-329 and 424-449. It is essentially an exaggerated startle response and is often seen in trauma survivors. OpenStax College, How Neurons Communicate. Lagerspetz’s experiment can be criticised on the grounds that it cannot be conducted with humans because it is clearly unethical. Environmental factors are also not placed into perspective. Biological development, the progressive changes in size, shape, and function during the life of an organism by which its genetic potentials (genotype) are translated into functioning mature systems (phenotype).Most modern philosophical outlooks would consider that development of some kind or other characterizes all things, in both the physical and biological worlds. Biological definition is - of or relating to biology or to life and living processes. Parents may also choose to put their child in a hobby that is sports oriented to cater for the aggressive levels in order to use their energy in a positive way, where they stimulate thinking and reasoning skills preventing the child from resorting to aggressive acts. The structure of the hypothalamus and the amygdala located within the brain are a leading biological cause of aggressive behaviour. Long-term potentiation is based on the principle that “cells that fire together, wire together,” and is widely considered one of the major cellular mechanisms that underlies learning and memory. October 26, 2013. This is a downfall as complex human behaviours cannot always be explained on a genetic basis; the surrounding environment also plays a central role in influencing and triggering aggressive behaviours. However, positive correlations between real life situations can be drawn, highlighting that laboratory studies are considerably useful. Mice species have differing logic and reasoning capacities as compared to humans, hence mice do not facilitate the opportunity to choose to be aggressive or not, whereas children have the capability of logically choosing to act aggressively. The biological approach of explaining aggressive behaviour in children is very scientific and is consequently regarded as reliable. A criticism of this study is that the cultural context of the children was not taken into account. According to this hypothesis, aggression will only occur due to frustration and no other particular factor. Lagerspetz’s procedure was repeated over 26 generations of mice giving birth to their offspring (cited in Grivas.J, Carter.L 2005). Philadelphia: Open University Press. Habituation occurs when we learn not to respond to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly without change, punishment, or reward. Plenum Publishing. It clearly highlights how certain behaviours, particularly aggression, can be learned by the observation of others. Human Aggression (2nd ed.). Definition of the Biological Perspective Charles Darwin first proposed the idea that genetics and evolution both contribute to many human qualities including personality. Biological factors which trigger aggressive behaviour in children are inheritance, where aggression may be passed from the parents to their offspring, as well as low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin, and the activity of certain structures in the brain, that when manipulated may trigger aggressive behaviour. A biological is a drug, such as a vaccine, that is derived from a living organism. In neural communication, a neurotransmitter is released from the axon of one neuron, crosses a synapse, and is then picked up by the dendrites of an adjacent neuron. Twin studies provide geneticists with a kind of natural experiment in which the behavioral likeness of identical twins (whose genetic relatedness is 1.0) can be compared with the resemblance of dizygotic twins (whose genetic relatedness is 0.5). We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. ‘Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models’. Dr. Anderson of Iowa State University in Ames and his colleagues found that in the U.S and Japan, Japanese and American children who played violent video games demonstrated more aggressive behaviour months later compared to their peers who didn’t. This leads to the conclusion that there are multiple forces which lead a child to acting aggressively; hence biological and environmental factors which trigger aggression cannot be isolated. Therefore, aggression in children, according to the biological perspective, is considered to be an innate behaviour. Biologicals are drugs derived from living cells and cultivated in a laboratory. Biology & genetics teaching & learning resources by D G Mackean. Biological predisposition is commonly known as someone's 'nature', as opposed to their 'nurture', or upbringing. However, the location of the experiments is not only a strength but also a potential weakness. OpenStax College, Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior. During the experiment he had children watching models acting aggressively towards a Bobo doll. The controlled conditioned group of the children were allowed to immediately play with the toys. If a shock is given following the sound, then the next time the sound occurs, the individual will subsequently react even more strongly to the sound. In sensitization, however, there are more pre-synaptic neurotransmitters, and the neuron itself is more excitable. Correspondingly, the findings of all studies conducted cannot be generalised to all children. This provides the basis of explaining aggressive behaviour in children from the learning perspective. Barker et al (1941) further investigated frustration as a cause of aggression in young children. The Biology of Learning And Implications for Teaching Science can explain how the human organism learns. It was found that those foxes which had been bred for over 30 years for domestic behaviour, showed no defensive reactions to humans because they had high levels of serotonin in various structures of the brain, compared to the foxes which had been bred without freedom (Popova et al, 1991). Therefore, frustration is not the only key factor which contributes to aggressive behaviour: there are other sources which may lead to this same outcome. Over time research has also consistently indicated that low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin plays a central role in increased levels of aggression in children. Understanding the underlying factors which contribute to aggressive behaviour will form the basis of combating the levels of violence all around the world where children, youth and adolescents often resort to violence. According to Berkowitz (1975) aggression is any behaviour which causes intentional harm to another person. Hillsdale, IL: Dryden Press. The underlying principle of this assumption suggests that aggression in children does not purely develop as a result of biological factors, rather it accounts for a very minor part. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 211-218, Bandura, A, Ross, D. and Ross, S.A (1961). Similar to the biological perspective of explaining aggressive behaviour in children, it is reductionist. J.H. Biology is subdivided into separate branches for convenience of study, though all the subdivisions are interrelated by basic principles. Albert Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiment highlights the role of observation in children’s learning. “Potentiation” refers to a strengthening of a nerve synapse. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 59-73. Sensitization is the strengthening of a neurological response to a stimulus due to the response to a secondary stimulus. Psychology for the VCE Student (4th ed.). The mice can have their behaviours observed in a lab, unlike humans. Glassman, W. (2000). Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. 1st Jan 1970 The biological perspective of psychology is based on the assumption that behaviour is biologically determined. A biological is a drug, such as a vaccine, that is derived from a living organism. In a study conducted at the National Institute of Mental Health (Bethasda MD), a positive correlation was found between low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin and the levels of aggression in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Mitsis.E et al, 2000). In Weiten (2007) text, the biological perspective belief that is referred to is that all psychological issues stem from a physiological background. Despite some similarity between humans and animals; there is still a large difference between them, therefore a direct link cannot be made between mice and children. See more. They watched the video of the model constantly acting aggressively by sitting on the doll, punching it and kicking it repeatedly. Hence, all additional differences in their behaviour are accounted by their environment and experiences as an individual. These studies clearly highlight the role which serotonin plays in causing aggressive behaviour amongst children; the lower the levels of serotonin the higher the level of aggression. Firstly, a theory proposed to support the theory of aggression from the learning perspective is the ‘frustration-aggression hypothesis’ which was proposed by John Dollard (1939). It has always appealed to me to understand the basis of aggressive behaviour as I have seen this behaviour amongst most children and teenagers, as well as adults. Having considered the interpretations of the development of aggression in children from both the biological and learning perspective, and the criticisms which arise from the research conducted, it can be concluded that both the biological and learning perspectives contribute to the development of aggression in children. Biological and Learning Psychology Order Instructions: This assignment mainly is based on the Adelaide Zoo in South Australia.. A significant contribution of this selective breeding experiment is its illustration of a genetic basis of aggression and how it can be passed onto the offspring. Twin studies are very useful for the reason that identical twins are monozygotic, and their genetic makeup is identical. In Biological Learning and Control, Reza Shadmehr and Sandro Mussa-Ivaldi present a theoretical framework for understanding the regularity of the brain's perceptions, its reactions to sensory stimuli, and its control of movements. Learning Objectives. This essay may contain factual inaccuracies or out of date material. The structure of a neuron: Communication between neurons occurs when the neurotransmitter is released from the axon on one neuron, travels across the synapse, and is taken in by the dendrite on an adjacent neuron. ‘Adoption results for self-reported personality’. Many theories have been driven by findings from research on animals, which highlight that there is some genetic aspect to aggression. ‘Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Examination and reformulation’. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Potentiation, habituation, and sensitization are three ways in which stimuli in the environment produce changes in the nervous system. Aggression in children can also be learnt through the observation of frustrated people who surround them and frustration also triggers aggressive behaviour (Dollard 1939). Learn more. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. For this reason it is not completely justified, because there are more determinants of aggressive behaviour. According to Bandura (1961) aggression can be learnt from the observation of other people and their aggressive behaviour. Studies conducted on children (ranging in age from approximately 3 to 15 years old) suggest that aggression develops in children based on their biological background or their environmental context. How to use biological in a sentence. J. M and Newcorn. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. The role of LTP in learning is still being researched, but studies on the hippocampus have found LTP to occur during associative learning (such as classical conditioning ). One certain structure of the brain cannot be the only factor which is responsible for the development of aggression in children, because most structures of the brain are connected and their influence or triggering of behaviour cannot therefore be based in one specific area. An argument stemming from this point is that it is not possible to apply animal findings to humans regardless of the similarities because they are different beings. Habituation, Sensitization, and Potentiation. Selective breeding has been one of the longest existing methods to find the existence of a phenotypic characteristic. It is a form of non-associative learning that does not require conscious motivation or awareness. For example, an animal may be startled when it hears a loud noise, but if it is repeatedly exposed to loud noises and experiences no associated consequence, such as pain, it will eventually stop being startled. biological definition: 1. relating to the study of living things such as plants and animals: 2. using living things or…. When you use the word biological, you're talking about life and living things. No plagiarism, guaranteed! A biological is a drug, such as a vaccine, that is derived from a living organism. Bandura’s (1961) most well known experiment was the Bobo doll experiment; the Bobo doll being a plastic clown doll. The significant outcome of this experiment was that the mice that had been bred for aggressive tendencies demonstrated immense levels of aggression; where they instantly attacked other mice sharing the same cage. Fuller (1962) presented a biological perspective on motivation that enumerated biological needs and their psychological consequences, integrative needs, and innate and acquired drives. New Haven CN: Yale University Press. Another potential weakness is the fact that the children may have not been exposed to the Bobo doll previously, hence they did not know how to play with it. Berkowitz, L. (1989). Thomson Wadsworth. The hypothalamus and amygdala can be manipulated using electrical currents, and they may be switched on or off disabling their normal operation using an electrode. In this article, we will venture on the biological theories and brain structures associated to learning and memory. This hypothesis suggests that frustration accounts for all aggressive acts. Biological Learning The brain is perhaps the most complex organ, consisting of myriads of elementary units (neurons and synapses), and it is still the greatest challenge of science to understand how their collective functioning gives rise to meaningful, adaptive behaviour. From the results it was found that the children from each group who were exposed to more violent video games were much more aggressive than those who were less exposed. Children were the subject as they are less socially conditioned unlike adults. The biological perspective can be criticised on the basis that aggression in children cannot be related to studies that have been conducted on animals. Berkowitz, L. (1975). Once again, this research could be criticised on the grounds that it is difficult to associate these findings to children as they are different beings. Biological and Learning Psychology. Dr. Craig A. Anderson, Ph.D. (2000) states, ‘This medium is potentially more dangerous than exposure to violent television and movies’. Those who take up the nurture side of the debate suggest that it is the environment that plays the greatest role in shaping behavior. Alarming articles and studies have revealed that violent video games are linked to aggressive behaviour amongst children. Twin studies suggest that aggression in children is an inherited trait passed on from parents to their offspring. Differentiate among habituation, sensitization, and long-term potentiation. Under biological needs he included oxygen, water, food, and the need for eliminating waste. Definition of biological adjective in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575-582. Habituation helps us to distinguish meaningful information from the background. This issue is worthy of investigation since aggression has become a substantial social problem amongst upcoming generations. Albert Bandura views most human behaviour as learned by observing a model or simply another person, which affects a child’s view of how this new behaviour can be developed and how this new attained behaviour is a guide for their actions. Parallels between humans and animals may be oversimplified, and therefore social, as well as learning processes, must also be taken into consideration. Baron. In sensitization, however, there are more pre-synaptic neurotransmitters, and the neuron itself is more excitable. Grivas.J, Carter. Anne, H. (2009). If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! Habituation and sensitization work in different ways neurologically. The biological perspective involves low ecological validity where most studies are conducted within laboratory conditions. Once they have been engaged in aggressive acts it impacts on the children emotionally, and as a consequence these children find it much easier and acceptable to engage in violence and aggressive acts. These findings are applicable to a small sample and findings cannot be predicted to be the same for a different sample of children as all children are different. Alarming news articles and reports focus on aggressive acts. The Animal I have chosen is SUMARTRAN TIGERS. Therefore, to fully understand the origins of aggressive behaviour, both biological and environmental factors must be considered within their limited scope. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! The U.S and Japanese children named their favourite video games and how often they played. Differentiate among habituation, sensitization, and long-term potentiation. Biological definition, pertaining to the science and application of biology: the biological substrata; conducting biological tests. The observations of other’s behaviour as demonstrated by Albert Bandura (1961) as well as the frustration aggression hypothesis suggested by Dollard (1939) have been found to be considerable factors in the development of aggression. biological learning. When considering the learning perspective and environmental determinants of aggression in children there are key factors which play an essential role. CC licensed content, Specific attribution, http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Sensitization, http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Habituation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long-term_potentiation, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/neurotransmitter, http://cnx.org/contents/72cfcf6f-e196-4e0b-9bcf-45f4853993e4@5/How-Neurons-Communicate, http://cnx.org/contents/4abf04bf-93a0-45c3-9cbc-2cefd46e68cc@4.100:34/Psychology, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebbian_theory, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stress_(biology)%23/media/File:General_Adaptation_Syndrome.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Neuronal_Synapse.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Neuron_-_annotated.svg. Very scientific and is consequently regarded as reliable from the learning perspective ’ s upbringing and home environment experts ready!, is considered to be responsible for the development of aggression in there! 18, 1-314 example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more display aggressive behaviour which. 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